Authors: Wurth, Margaret & Schleifer, Rebecca & McLemore, Megan & Todrys, Katherine. (2013).

Condoms as evidence of prostitution in the United States and the criminalization of sex work.

Journal of the International AIDS Society. 16. 18626. 10.7448/IAS.16.1.18626.


The vulnerability of sex workers and transgender women to HIV infection is a result of many factors including stigma, social and physical isolation, economic deprivation, and legal and policy environments that criminalize their behaviour. Recent systematic reviews have found high HIV prevalence among both populations, including an 11.8% pooled HIV prevalence among female sex workers in 50 countries and a 19.1% HIV prevalence among male-tofemale transgender women in 15 countries worldwide. Studies in the United States have also documented high HIV prevalence among people who report transactional sex and transgender populations.

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